ME00960 - KNOWTH - Megalithic tomb - passage tomb

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The great passage tomb cemetery of Knowth, built over 5,000 years ago during the middle of the Neolithic period (around 3200 BC), is one of a number of monuments which, together with the nearby passage tombs of Newgrange and Dowth, form part of the

SITUATION: This great kerbed mound (Tomb 1C) is the focal point of a large passage tomb cemetery which has undergone extensive excavation (E00070) 1962-2000 and conservation. It is at the highest point of the bend of the Boyne or the Brú na Bóinne complex of prehistoric monuments consisting of passage tombs and prehistoric earthwork monuments of a ritual nature that are being recorded through remote sensing techniques, oblique aerial photography and archaeological excavation. This tomb is situated at the W end of a shale ridge where the River Boyne, approaching from the W, is forced S by the shale and then E and N in a curve encompassing the townlands of Knowth, Newgrange and Dowth, each with an extraordinarily large passage tomb mound as a focus for other monuments. The Knowth mound has at least 19 smaller passage tombs clustered around it S-W-E. In addition there is a record of another (ME019-030078-) that was somewhere in the grounds of Knowth House, just to the NE. However, satellite tombs and other features are largely absent E-S of the great mound because later agricultural activity has removed almost all archaeological material in this area. SUMMARY: This central mound, which was built and utilised over three centuries c. 3200 – c. 2900 BC, was not the first structure or even the first tomb at this location (Eogan and Cleary 2017, 44). Unfortunately, it is not possible to provide a detailed sequence of tomb construction and other activities at the complex, although the broad outline is clear. The mound is subcircular (dims 95m N-S; 80m E-W; H 10m) and has a circuit of 127 contiguous kerbstones including a few gaps, which are numbered clockwise from its junction with Tomb 16 at NE. The incorporation of this tomb into the great mound and the straightening of the kerb of the great mound to avoid Tomb 13 at N demonstrate that these tombs at least pre-date Tomb 1C. Incurving of the kerb at E and W funnels traffic to the entrances of two back-to-back passage tombs, the chambers of which are only c. 5m apart at the centre of the mound. The excavator concludes that three major phases are represented in the mound, the first being a passage tomb (1A) that was dismantled to provide a location and materials for the second phase (Tomb 1B) when the E and W chambers with short passages and their stabilising cairn (diam. 38m N-S) were built. Finally, after an interval of unknown length but thought not to be very long, the passages were lengthened to meet a new kerb, and the mound of sods intermixed with various clay and stone layers(Tomb 1C) was added (ibid. 49). Almost all the structural stones are greywacke, which was not derived from the immediate locality although there is a possible source at Clogher Head, Co. Louth. Quartz, another exotic stone used in the finishing, may have come from the Dublin/Wicklow Mountains, and the granite that was used might have been sourced in the Mourne Mountains. EXCAVATION: Such a prominent mound attracted remarkably little attention from antiquarians (ibid. 12-18), probably because it had no open ‘caves’, unlike the great mounds at Newgrange (ME019-045----) and Dowth (ME020-017----). The earliest investigation was undertaken in the 1941 when 58 kerbstones were exposed at S and at NW. At the same time a souterrain, No. 5, on the great mound and what was thought to be an entrance passage into the same mound were explored (Macalister 1943), but the latter proved to be one of the satellite tombs, No. 14. In 1962 a programme of excavation under the direction of Dr. George Eogan who became Professor of Archaeology at University College Dublin in 1979 was initiated to resolve research questions raised by the excavation of a small undifferentiated passage tomb at Townleyhall II (LH024-008----), c. 3.5km to the NE. Although few features were visible outside the great mound before work began a number of tombs were soon excavated around its N edge, with some archaeological material extending inside the kerb of the mound. The passages of the W and E tombs were discovered almost accidentally in July 1967 and August 1968 respectively, but the excavators were not the first people to have entered them in the 5000 years or so since they were abandoned for burial as the tombs had been discovered in the seventh century AD when the mound was converted into a rath (ME019-030040-), and the passages were connected to elaborate souterrains associated with an undefended settlement (ME09-030060-) in the tenth and eleventh centuries (Eogan 2012; Eogan and Cleary 2017, 42). Graffiti in both scholastic ogham and cursive script from these incursions are scratched onto stones in both tombs. The outer ends of both passages had been removed by these works when as many as 14 orthostats or large upright stones from each of the tombs could have been discarded, with the result that the original articulation of the passages with the kerb is not known. Both passages are roofed with lintels or capstones supported on the orthostats or on corbels protruding inwards over them, but pressure from the mound has forced the tops of many orthostats inwards so that much of the passages had an inverted V profile when discovered. The pressure was so great that it has cracked corbels and capstones in a few places, leaving both tombs with conservation and engineering problems that could not be overcome without destroying the integrity of the monument. Therefore, it was decided that these passages and their chambers must remain off-limits to visitors. EAST TOMB: The E tomb (total L 40.2m) is a straight passage (Wth c. 0.6-0.8m; H 1.5-1.6m) that increases in height (max. H 2.7m) as it approaches the cruciform chamber (max. dims 8.16m N-S; 5.6m E-W).The chamber has recesses at N, S and W that are covered by capstones, with a corbelled roof rising over them to the apex (max. H 6.1m) at the centre. The N or right-hand recess is the largest and has an elaborately decorated stone basin while the S recess has a smaller, plainer one. The topmost deposit in the passage and chamber was a charcoal-flecked clay with animal bones and iron material dating from the tenth – eleventh centuries AD, and this was particularly evident in the chamber where two hearths and four pits indicate regular habitation that is probably connected with the use of medieval house 4 (ibid. 59-60). The original deposit in the E tomb produced the remains of more than 170 individuals, about 130 of whom had been cremated, but most of these deposits were a mixture of burnt and unburned bone. The burials were largely confined to the recesses and were accompanied by bone and antler pins, beads, and pendants of stone and fired clay. A remarkable and highly decorated flint macehead was found amongst the primary deposits, although stone or chalk balls and Carrowkeel ware appear to be wholly absent. (ibid. 86-137) WEST TOMB: The W tomb (total L 34.2m) comprises a passage (Wth c. 0.6m; H c. 1.1m) with a slight bend to the south c. 25m in from the kerb leading to a simple undifferentiated chamber (L c. 3.2m; Wth 1.3m; H 2m). A stone basin was found at the bend in the passage but this is not its original position. There are three sillstones beyond the bend, the first guarded on the S by an orthostat (O 49) which is decorated in the rare anthropomorphic style with two owl-like eyes. This has become something of an icon for the tomb and the excavations at Knowth. Many of the kerbstones and a large number of the structural stones of both tombs are decorated with megalithic art, but full publication of this material is still awaited. (ibid. 79-86) TOMB 1A: Both tombs, or rather both chambers and the inner sections of their passages (Tomb 1B), were probably constructed at the same time and they are both secured by the same cairn (diam. c. 38m N-S; max. H c. 9m). This cairn, which had no kerb (ibid. 137-41), held the corbels and capstones in place, especially those over the E chamber where its weight was needed to keep the corbeled roof in place. However, it is postulated by the excavator that an earlier tomb (1A) existed on the site which was dismantled for the new double tomb and that 24 decorated stones from the earlier structure were re-used in both the inner and outer portions of the E and W tombs. The orthostats of the outer (1C) passages were set in trenches, and the junction of the original and extended E passages was facilitated by a U-shaped pad of stones between the capstones of the inner and outer passages at the point where the shale layer sealing the capstones of 1B was overlaid by the sod layer over the capstones of 1C (ibid. 141-44). The re-used stones that are thought to have originated in Tomb 1A are large (L c. 2m; Wth c. 0.6m; T 0.3-0.4m) and make frequent use of tight spirals and zigzag motifs that can cover two thirds of a surface. The hidden faces of these stones often have these motifs, and many of the stones could not have been decorated in their present positions. Some stones had even been broken to retain the art. The locations of these stones at important articulations of the passages seem to have been carefully selected, but their hidden or half-hidden positions could be interpreted either as accidental or as a ritual neutralisation of the art. The size of these stones suggests that Tomb 1A was a large structure, and the presence of recycled stones in both 1B and 1C further intimates that there was hardly any interval between all these developments (ibid. 65-77). TOMB 1B WEST: Tomb 1B West (total L 7.7m; Wth c. 0.8m; H 1.1 at W to 2m) consists of the innermost 19 orthostats, 7 capstones, 19 corbels and 3 sillstones of the W passage. The 2 orthostats on either side outside the first sillstone flare outwards to meet the V-shaped in-turned edge of the cairn of Tomb 1B. The passage narrows (Wth 0.5m) 2.4m inside the first sillstone which was once an entrance stone before widening into the undifferentiated chamber (L 3.2m; Wth 1.3m) marked by the second sillstone. The corbels in the chamber rise vertically over the orthostats beneath a single large capstone. The basin now in the passage of Tomb 1C is too large to have fit into the chamber but a stone-lined depression (diam. 0.9-1m; D 0.15m) just outside the chamber sillstone may have been designed for it. The chamber had already been dug out in the seventh - eight century AD, and apart from removing a broken pestle-shaped macehead and fragments of an antler mushroom-headed pin from this spoil in the passage this tomb is preserved unexcavated. The spoil contained cremated and unburned bone, and a sample produced a C14 date of 3324-2928 cal. BC. (ibid. 79-86) TOMB 1B EAST: Tomb 1B East (total L 14.6m) consists of the cruciform chamber which is accessed by a passage (L c. 9m; Wth 0.8m; H 1.6m at E rising to 2.7m at W) of 24 orthostats, 32 corbels and 10 capstones, with a sillstone at either end. There are packing stones around the orthostats but it is not known if they were in sockets or trenches. The bases of the orthostats were sealed with a mix of clay and subsoil but there was no humus. The chamber has 21 orthostats, 50 corbels and 62 roof corbels. There are two capstones over the S recess, one each over the other recesses and a capstone at the apex. A sillstone marks the transition from the passage to the chamber, but only the S recess has its own sillstone. The floor of the W recess has a single floor-stone jammed into position at the back, and the N recess has two non-structural jamb stones (H 2.2m) restricting access (Wth 0.54m). Where necessary the walls of the recesses were raised with drystone walling, and their capstones slope up towards the crux of the chamber so that they merge with the third or fourth course of corbels rising from the chamber orthostats and meld into the lowest of the ten courses of roof corbels that rise to the final capstone (H 6.1m). (ibid. 86-103) The weight of the cairn has caused the 4 orthostats at the crux of the central chamber to lean slightly inwards. The chamber floor was covered by a secondary deposit associated with habitation in the tenth - eleventh century AD, beneath which the in situ deposits containing burnt and unburned human bones were largely confined to the recesses. The S recess had five primary deposits of human remains on the floor or in shallow scoops, sometimes lined with stones. They were closed by small stones and were placed around the edges of the recess, leaving the centre free because it was originally occupied by the damaged stone basin. Over these remains small stones created eight compartments with deposits of mixed burnt and unburned bones together with fragments of antler or bone pins. The compartments were sealed by a sterile layer of shale above which was an homogenous deposit containing the same mix of human remains associated with a cow scapula which could have been used as a shovel. Other artefacts were two mushroom-headed pins, and numerous fragments of bone and antler pins. This was covered by tenth century habitation material, above which was the up-turned basin stone. (ibid. 103-16) The W recess had two discrete deposits with burnt and unburned remains and some fragments of bone and antler pins. These were sealed by thin layers of sandy yellow earth beneath the later habitation. The right-hand or N recess has a slightly damaged but highly decorated granite basin which was in place before the recess was constructed. Nine discrete deposits with a mix of burnt and unburned human remains were recovered that are assigned to 6 event horizons often separated by clays with silt. The lowest is a pit with the remains of 9 adults and 5 juveniles. Three deposits under the edges of the basin are probably contemporary with those in the pit. A layer of shale (dims 2.2m x 0.6m) spilled around the jamb stones of the entrance and was thickest (0.1m) in the entrance where it covered an exquisitely carved flint macehead lying on the ground surface (Eogan and Richardson 1982). The decoration of spirals and peltae is in relief, and it is a highly accomplished unique artefact, one side having the appearance of a human face (Eogan and Cleary 2017, 440-3). A second horizon is represented by the mixed upper fill of the pit and what could be nine discrete cremations with varying densities of bone, which might nevertheless represent one deposit. A third horizon is represented by a pit between the jamb stones with a single deposit of burnt and unburned bone sealed by small stones. The remaining horizons are represented by spreads with bone in different parts of the recess, two spilling through the jamb stones and one with discrete compartments created by stones in the deposit. Tubular and spacer beads from an elaborate necklace are associated with horizons 4 and 5. Horizon 6 consisted of a deposit in the NW corner of the recess and another in the SW. The latter lay on the shale layer with the macehead and could be contemporary with horizon 5. (ibid. 104-37) TOMB 1C: The extended passages and enlarged mound ensured continued access to the 1B chambers but a wider variety of stone types was used for structural stones in Tomb 1C and many of these could have been sourced more locally. There were no rills on the upper surfaces of the capstones that might have diverted rainwater but the capstones were sealed with a levelling up layer of small stones under a covering mantle of redeposited sods and other clays. The new extension of the W passage (L 23m plus; Wth 0.8m; H 1.1m) has 65 orthostats set in trenches, 22 corbels and 25 capstones. The new section of the E passage (L 20.2m plus; Wth 0.85m; H 1.6m) consists of 49 orthostats, 38 corbels and 42 capstones. Fragmentary lines of stones running parallel with and 1.3-3m N and S from the walls of the passages were noted in the basal sod layer of the mound at both the E and W passages, but their function is not known.(ibid. 162 - 86) The construction of the mound was a colossal undertaking, but the 13 to 15 layers of sods and subsoil alternating with layers of quarried shale, angular stones and water-rolled stones created a mound of greater stability than any single material could have done. The lower layers rise from the back of the kerbstones and increase in thickness as they near the cairn (1B) at the core. The basal sod layer was directly over the original humus in some places while in others it lay directly on Middle Neolithic habitation as in Zone H(ME019-030031-),but the construction is likely to have been closely contemporary with that habitation. Some pig bones were in the basal layer and fragments of hazel, perhaps from a basket, were associated with a cow horn and mandible. (ibid. 186-200) The surface of the outer mound has embrasures or trenches that were left open or re-opened over the outer sections of both the E (L of base 9m plus; Wth of top 5.8m; Wth of base 4m) and W (L of base 9m plus; Wth of top 8.6m; Wth of base 4m; D c. 4m) passages, but the embrasures are not deep enough to have reached the orthostats of the passages and their purpose is not fully understood (ibid. 60-4). The kerbstones (dims c. 2.2m x c. 0.7m; H c. 1.25m) are set contiguously, either propped up with stones or set in sockets so that they have a fairly level upper surface. The stones are largely greywacke (91) but sandstone (15), limestone (9), cleaved mudrocks (4), dolerite (2), unidentified igneous (2) and 1 tuff are also present. Only 32 of the kerbstones, mostly the non-greywacke stones, have no art. Complex arrangements of ceremonial stone settings outside the west (ME019-030087-) and east (ME019-030088-) tombs would have been utilised during the use of the tombs for burial. (ibid. 200-212) SOLAR ALIGNMENTS: The E and W passages of Tomb 1C are generally aligned E-W and sunlight from the rising or setting sun must penetrate them at some point around the time of the equinoxes. The points on the horizon where sunrise and sunset occur at the equinoxes will not change over the millennia, although the points at which other solar or lunar events occur might. However, it has been found that the greatest penetration of sunlight into the W passage of Tomb 1C would occur 17 days before the Spring equinox and the same number of days after the Autumn equinox. The passage of Tomb 1B West is aligned 19 degrees further N than that of Tomb 1C West, and the maximum solar penetration of this passage would occur on April 3rd and September 8th. Lengthening the passage of 1B East in the extended mound would reduce the possibility of sunlight penetrating the chamber, but in any case the maximum penetration of sunlight occurs six days after the vernal equinox and six days before the autumnal event. The major standstills of the lunar cycle are not marked by features on either the E or W horizon. None of the solar dates can be considered to be significant calendar dates, and it is concluded that the tombs did not have astronomical alignments. (Prendergast and Ray 2017) HUMAN REMAINS: As most of Tomb 1BWest is preserved unexcavated only two small samples of bone were recovered with evidence of two cremated adults, one of whom was female, and one adult from unburned bone. The cremated remains of Tomb 1B East were well burnt and on the whole were finely crushed. The burnt remains in the left-hand or S recess in this tomb represented 29 adults and nine juveniles, but only one adult can be identified as female. At least 14 adults and three juveniles were represented amongst the fragmentary unburned remains from the same recess. Only two adults are represented by the remains in the end or W recess, one from cremated material the other from unburned bones. Treating all the samples from the N recess separately the remains of 50 adults and 42 juveniles are present in the cremated material but only five males and one female could be positively identified. Amongst the unburned bones there were fragmentary remains of 17 adults and 12 juveniles. For Tomb 1B East a total of 131 people were amongst the cremated remains and 47 from the unburned. The N recess had a markedly higher proportion of juveniles to adults in both the burnt and unburned categories. Eight small samples from Tomb 1C West were all of cremated bones, which were poorly burnt and crushed compared to those from Tomb 1B East, and it is thought that a secondary period of burial, perhaps related to the use of Grooved ware, is represented as the radiocarbon determinations are also later (2900-2700 cal. BC). Only eight adults and two juveniles are present. The full range of deposition options in the mix of male and female, young and old, burnt and unburned or a mixture of both, as well as single and communal depositions seems to have been practiced (Cooney 2017 396-401). (Buckley et al. 2017, 287-302) THE ART: The full corpus of art from the tomb is not yet published but a cornucopia awaits. Knowth Tomb 1 has 197 stones decorated with megalithic art which is almost half the number for Brú na Bóinne and a third of the Irish total of c. 570 (Shee Twohig 1981). Britain and the Continent have about 350 decorated stones from this early period, so the Bend of the Boyne was at the centre of, and perhaps represents the supreme achievement of, passage tomb art in stone. However, in Iberia expressions in pottery and on mobile plaques or idols of much the same range of motifs occurs and might have been the norm there. While the same techniques were used in Brittany that province shares a limited range of motifs with the Irish tombs from this period (Eogan 1986, 166-70). With such a collection of art the great mound is proportionally more highly decorated than any of the satellite tombs. Ninety of its kerbstones have some art compared with only 15 decorated kerbstones of the 251 surviving from the satellite tombs, and the most accomplished pieces from the Tomb 1Ckerb are placed close to the entrances of both tombs. The W tomb has 35 formally decorated stones while the E tomb has at least 70, but most structural stones in both tombs have some markings. Lightly incised lines occasionally occur, probably as outlines, but most of the decoration is achieved through picking fairly broad lines which are rarely brought to a polished finish. In a preliminary analysis Eogan (ibid. 146-53) recognised 16 motifs, with circles, either whole or broken, being the most popular. Prominent single motifs like circles or spirals, as well as snakes are limited to the kerbstones, but lozenges, triangles and chevrons are more varied in their positioning. Area picking is extensively used but single cupmarks are rare, and there is only one example of the line with offsets. An interesting motif is the rayed dot or circle on K15 since it provides a connection with tomb X1 (ME009-071001-) at the Loughcrew cemetery. Eogan (ibid. 153-65) has identified 15 styles, based on motifs or groups of motifs, enabling connections to be made with the art of other tombs, both in Ireland and abroad. A feature of the art at Tomb 1 is the use made of rectangles and straight lines. The kerbstones opposite both tomb entrances have prominent vertical lines, reminiscent of the entrance stone at Newgrange, but at Tomb 1C the accompanying design on both stones is large nested rectangles, which Eogan regards as a particular Knowth style. The boxed rectangles are repeated on the backstone of Tomb 1B W and on one of its sillstones. Decoration in the angular style is dominated by lozenges, triangles and chevrons, often occupying much of the available space. They are utilised in particular on prominent corbels and the outer edges of capstones over recesses, places where they can be readily seen by people negotiating the passages or entering the chambers. The rectangular and angular styles dominate both tombs at Tomb 1, but Eogan (ibid. 181-6)recognises that some of the large unified compositions were not always primary and that the art itself was capable of evolution. A more holistic approach could afford deeper insights. O’Sullivan (1986) describes the accumulation of motifs on accessible and hidden surfaces that are associated with the construction and early use of the tombs as the depictive style. He also notes the imposition of larger designs where the form of the stone could influence the compositions that are only placed on accessible stones, which he describes as the plastic style. These could only have been applied once Tomb 1C was completed and this art sometimes obliterates motifs of the depictive style. The motifs of the plastic style encompass those of the depictive, but it is never placed less than 0.3m from the ground although most of the rest of the available surface is utilised. Close analysis of the art identifies 24 structural stones at Tomb 1, and some others from other tombs, which might have been re-used from an original Tomb 1A that is no longer extant. These are characterised by tightly wound spirals or panels of zigzags, and the stones were sometimes broken to secure the art for both Tomb 1B and 1C. (Eogan and Cleary 2017, 65-77) DATING: Bayesian analysis of the C14 dates derived from the cremated and unburned human remains uses information from the stratigraphy and other data as well as statistical modelling to identify and exclude anomalies and create the best modelled results. Three samples from the pre-Tomb 1C ground suggest spasmodic activity in the Mesolithic with dates ranging from 6388-8188 cal. BC to 4815-5725 cal. BC (68% probability), for which there is some lithic support. A terminus post-quem of 3310-2845 cal. BC is provided for the mound of Tomb 1C. The E chamber has the greatest quantity of cremated and unburned bone from sealed contexts in Brú na Bóinne, and the S recess produces start dates of 3150-3030 cal. BC and end dates of 3075-3150-3075 cal. BC with no break in deposition, which is remarkably in agreement with the start and end dates for material in the N recess. This has 17 determinations and 6 horizons but deposition began 3340-3100 cal. BC and ended 3095-2930 cal. BC. Only one date of 3337-2931 cal. BC is available from the end-recess but it agrees with an aggregate range of 3300-3100 BC for Tomb 1B East. The only sample from outside the middle sillstone of Tomb 1B West produced a result of 3324-2928 cal. BC, broadly in line with Tomb 1B East. One of the two samples from Tomb 1C West, apparently in a sealed context behind an orthostat, produced a date range of 2921-2636 cal. BC and must be intrusive, but the range from the other sample of 3347-2920 cal. BC shows that Tomb 1C West is broadly contemporary with two samples from the use of Tomb 1C East of 3347-2882 cal. BC. (Schulting et al. 2017, 331-351) CONSERVATION AND PRESENTATION: Conservation of the monuments in the complex proceeded throughout the excavation years with the intention of presenting the tombs as close to their original appearance in the Middle Neolithic as was possible and to making them fully accessible to the modern visitor. By the 1980s conservation philosophy was beginning to recognise that the conservation processes itself could alter and endanger the monuments, and a more distant approach to the conservation itself and the visitor experience was evolving. This was especially the case where the scale of conservation interventions could itself destroy the integrity of what was being conserved. Site-specific conservation interventions were devised, although the complete stabilization of Tomb 1B East and Tomb 2 that would allow unrestricted visitor access could not be achieved on a minimalist scale and has to be foregone. Nevertheless, access to the passage of Tomb 1C East was secured, but the narrowness of the entrance to Tomb 1C West and the constrained space and height of its chamber precludes visitor access. Concerns over the effects of weathering on the surfaces of some stones and their art resulted in the enclosing of some of the smaller tombs in mounds that will preserve the stones but exclude visitors, while other tombs are provided with half reconstructed mounds ensuring that these tombs are open to visitors. (Gowen et al. 2017) Although the main aim of the conservation is to present the complex as a Neolithic cemetery of passage tombs, an effort is also made to preserve as many elements of its later development, particularly its early and high medieval phases, as possible. The late Neolithic timber circle is presented as a timber reconstruction, and a portion of the rath ditch is displayed in a room within the mound. Wherever possible the souterrains are also conserved but not all of them can be presented. Only one medieval house and one kiln are conserved. By 1999 much of the conservation works were finished and the complex was partially opened to visitors. In 1993 the archaeological monuments in the townlands of Knowth, Newgrange, and Dowth were inscribed on the list of World Heritage Sites maintained by UNESCO. A Visitor Centre on the S side of the river was opened in 1997, and its displays were rejuvenated in 2020. At the moment excursions to the exterior of Knowth and Newgrange depart from the Centre by minibus but the visits are not accompanied by guides. See: worldheritageireland.ie/bru-na-boinne/ Compiled by: Michael Moore Date of upload: 16 September 2020 See the attached images: _1 Tomb 1B from Knowth 6, fig. 2:10 _2 Tomb 1B West from Knowth 6, fig. 2:12A _3 Map of the Cemetery _3a Tomb 1C East from Knowth 6, Fig. 2:14A _4 Professor Eogan (right) at the discovery of the E tomb _5 Stone basin in the NE recess. _6 Flint macehead _7 Kerbstone K5 _8 Kerbstone K15 _9 Kerbstone K86 _10 Orthostat O49 from Tomb 1B West

Description Source: National Monuments Service, Department of Arts, Heritage Regional, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs.

Monument Details

Address:
KNOWTH, Meath
GPS:
53.7012, -6.49147
SMRS:
ME019-030001-
what3words:
places.engulfs.disruption

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